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Tracing how horse domestication turned the Eurasian Steppe into a highway

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Enlarge / Horses on the Kazakh Steppe. (credit: Togzhan Ibrayeva via Wikimedia Commons)

From Neanderthals to human hunter-gatherers to the mounted horde of Genghis Khan, the Eurasian Steppe has long been a crossroads of humanity. And for the last 5,000 years or so, domesticated horses have shaped how people moved through, lived in, and dominated that vast grassland stretching from Hungary and Romania to Northeastern China. A paleogenomic study adds new evidence to the debate about where people first domesticated horses, and a related study reveals the impact of horsemanship on the peopling of the steppe.

The first evidence we have of domesticated horses comes from a site called Botai in Northern Kazakhstan, where archaeologists have found evidence of milking, corrals, and the use of harnesses. But there’s still debate about whether hunter-gatherers at Botai started domesticating horses—which they’d previously hunted for meat—in order to milk and ride them. It's possible they learned from herders farther west, such as the people whose graves have been found at Khvalynsk dating from around 7,150 to 5,930 years ago.

To get a better picture, Copenhagen University evolutionary geneticist Eske Willerslev and his colleagues examined the ancestry of 74 people who lived on the Eurasian Steppe from 11,000 years ago up through the Medieval period. Among other things, they wanted to see whether the Botai had interbred with the Yamnaya, the pastoral descendants of the Khvalynsk people. If they had, that would be a clue that the Botai had interacted with the Yamnaya enough to perhaps exchange cultural ideas as well as genes.

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scm7sc
8 days ago
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'Brooklyn Nine-Nine' was canceled and the internet is losing its mind

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This is bad. This is very, very bad.

After five seasons, Brooklyn Nine-Nine has been canceled by Fox, The Hollywood Reporter reported Thursday. Fans of the show are distraught, to say the least, and immediately began voicing their sadness on Twitter.

#Brooklyn99 pic.twitter.com/FWmD946SCt

— giselle 🥀 (@nataIyarostov) May 10, 2018

ME IMMEDIATELY AFTER FINDING OUT @Brooklyn99FOX WAS CANCELLED AT WORK pic.twitter.com/8IrllX2TYU

— Nicole Gallucci (@nicolemichele5) May 10, 2018

HOW DO YOU CANCEL THE BEST SHOW ON TELEVISION? ARE YOU KIDDING ME????!!! https://t.co/BzfLEtzD6T NINE-NINE! #Brooklyn99

— Rainbow Rowell (@rainbowrowell) May 10, 2018 Read more...

More about Reactions, Fox, Tv Shows, Brooklyn Nine Nine, and Canceled
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scm7sc
9 days ago
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Wayne Rooney: Everton forward agrees 'deal in principle' to join MLS side DC United

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Wayne Rooney has agreed a deal in principle that could see him leave Everton for Major League Soccer side DC United this summer in a £12.5m deal.

Rooney's representatives have been in the US to negotiate terms and the former England skipper is willing to leave the Premier League club.

Nothing has been signed yet and uncertainty over Everton boss Sam Allardyce's position means the forward, 32, could stay at Goodison Park.

Rooney re-joined Everton in July 2017.

He spent 13 seasons at Manchester United after signing from Everton as an 18-year-old, becoming their record goalscorer and winning five Premier League titles and the Champions League.

It is understood Rooney has been offered a contract until the end of the 2020 MLS season. The US transfer window does not open until July.

Earlier this week, Allardyce said Rooney wants to stay and dismissed suggestions England's record goalscorer is frustrated with his role.

"It would have to be massive for him to want leave Everton," the former England manager told Talksport. "I've not had a problem from day one with Wayne (but) the Wayne Rooney saga continues on doesn't it?"

Allardyce's future is also uncertain at the club, with fans not happy with his style of play.

Rooney, who is halfway through a two-year deal at Goodison Park, has played 31 times in the league this season with four appearances from the bench.

He reacted angrily to being substituted against Liverpool in a 0-0 draw last month.

Rooney is Everton's top scorer with 11 goals this season.

Analysis

BBC Sport's chief football writer Phil McNulty

Rooney's return to his beloved Everton last summer was meant to provide an emotional final flourish to a magnificent career.

It did not turn into the fairytale he and Everton wanted when he was paraded in front of hundreds of flashbulbs in July - but it should not be painted as a failure either.

The 32-year-old returned to the club he left in summer 2004 intent on driving Everton forward into a new era of success under then manager Ronald Koeman.

Koeman was sacked in October after a nightmare start but when Rooney's final campaign in the Premier League is remembered, he was still involved in Everton's best moments this season.

A spectacular headed winner on the opening day at home to Stoke City, his first Merseyside derby goal in a 1-1 draw at Liverpool and a hat-trick in Everton's 4-0 win against West Ham United, capped with a spectacular strike from his own half, watched by Sam Allardyce as he prepared to succeed Koeman.

It was all downhill from there, sadly, with Rooney's appearances restricted under Allardyce in a reined-in midfield role and his frustrations made public when he was clearly furious to be substituted in the goalless derby draw with Liverpool at Goodison.

Rooney was never going to be the explosive talent of his earlier years - but he still provided the odd moment to treasure in a desperate season for Everton.

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scm7sc
10 days ago
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The Ocado robot swarms that pack your shopping

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A rare behind-the-scenes tour of Ocado's robot-run grocery-delivery operation.
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11 days ago
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Chipotle Restaurant: Teachers Deal: Burrito, Bowl, Salad or Order of Tacos B1G1 Free (5/8 for Teachers Only)

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Chipotle Restaurant: Teachers Deal: Burrito, Bowl, Salad or Order of Tacos  B1G1 Free (5/8 for Teachers Only)

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Chipotle Mexican Grill.com [Restaurant Locator] is offering Teachers (with valid faculty ID) a Buy One, Get One Free: Burrito, Bowl, Salad or Order of Tacos valid from 3PM to close on Tuesday, May 8th, 2018 at participating Chipotle locations. Thanks warmail
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12 days ago
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T-Mobile Customers: $3 Starbucks & More via T-Mobile Tuesdays App (05/08/18)

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T-Mobile Customers: $3 Starbucks & More via T-Mobile Tuesdays App (05/08/18)

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T-Mobile via T-Mobile Tuesdays App (Link for Reference) is offering Select Freebies listed below when you download the T-Mobile Tuesdays App for Free valid only for T-Mobile Customers valid only on Tuesday (Today, May 8, 2018). Thanks fivenue

Note, offer valid for T-Mobile Customers only. Not a T-Mobile customer? Click here to learn more about signing up or switching to receive this and other great benefits
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12 days ago
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